اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.
Prophet David’s Practice in the Quran
In its original Hebrew form, “David” means “beloved.” Prophet David, known in the Quran as Dāwūd, was an Israelite prophet and the fourteenth generation descendant of Prophet Abraham. Prophet Solomon was his son. David successfully led the conquest of Jerusalem for the Children of Israel before assuming the role of king. David’s lifetime is estimated to have been around 972 BC. Notably, he possessed a beautiful voice, which added to his remarkable qualities. While David is highly revered by the Jewish community, it is important to note that certain accusations are mentioned in the Torah concerning him.
David, revered as a significant figure in the Quran, is mentioned 16 times within its verses. He is recognized as one of the prophets who received divine scriptures from God. Specifically, in the Quran, David’s scripture is referred to as “zabūr,” which translates to psalms. While being acknowledged among the esteemed prophets, the Quran places particular emphasis on David’s psalms:
إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَى وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا
Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him. And we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the book [of Psalms]. (Al-Nisa, 163)
While David did not introduce a new sharia or religion, he served as a propagating prophet who advocated for Moses’s religion within his community. However, the Quran bestows a distinct reverence upon David, primarily due to his psalms. The Quran highlights that entrusting David with the psalms elevated his status above numerous other prophets:
وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا
And We have made some of the prophets exceed others [in various ways], and to David We gave the book [of Psalms]. (Isra, 55)
The reason for David’s exceptional status lies in the fact that he was the first prophet to receive a comprehensive scripture, unlike his predecessors who, as mentioned in Quranic verses, received fragmented scriptures containing divine laws and directives. This unique distinction of being bestowed with a complete scripture sets David apart and contributes to his elevated position among the prophets:
صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى
The scriptures of Abraham and Moses. (Aʿla, 19)
أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِي صُحُفِ مُوسَى؛ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّى
Or has he not been informed of what was in the scriptures of Moses (36) And [of] Abraham, who fulfilled [his obligations]. (Najm, 36-37)
Prophet David’s Character
The Quran attributes particular characteristics to David:
- Servitude to God, Power, Deep Heartfelt Connection to God
In the Quran, David’s primary attribute is his unwavering devotion and servitude to God. Additionally, he is depicted as a figure of great power and resourcefulness, having attained numerous capabilities. Lastly, David is portrayed as someone who consistently supplicated to God and turned to Him:
وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah]. (Sad, 17)
- Existential Authority and Mastery over the Mountains
According to the Quran, David was bestowed with mastery over the mountains by God Himself. This divine authority granted him dominion over even the loftiest peaks:
إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الْجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِشْرَاقِ
Indeed, We subjected the mountains [to praise] with him, exalting [Allah] in the [late] afternoon and [after] sunrise. (Sad, 18)
- Mastery over the Bodies and Hearts of Birds
The Quran attributes to Prophet David the extraordinary ability to communicate with birds. It is stated that the birds held a deep affection for David, despite being under his dominion:
وَالطَّيْرَ مَحْشُورَةً كُلٌّ لَهُ أَوَّابٌ
And the birds were assembled, all with him repeating [praises]. (Sad, 19)
- A Stable Government, Wisdom, Judgment among People
According to the Quran, Prophet David’s government was characterized by stability, which was rooted in its commitment to justice. A ruler who fails to administer just treatment to their people cannot establish a lasting and stable government. In fact, Prophet Muhammad emphasized that “a kingdom may endure under disbelief but will not endure under injustice.”
When the Quran talks about the stability of David’s government, it shows that his government enjoyed support by the people.
وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ
And We strengthened his kingdom and gave him wisdom and discernment in speech. (Sad, 20)
According to the Persian poet Sanaʾi Ghaznawi:
Unjust Muslim’s sway, frustrating souls with strife,
God’s discontent ignited by unjust life.
Injustice, a plague that tarnishes all hearts,
Unveiling the darkness as virtue departs.
Justice bestowed, blessings dance and unfurl,
Illuminating the world with an ethereal swirl.
Injustice’s touch erodes the nation’s core,
Undermining foundations, leaving them sore.
Kingdoms find strength when justice takes its reign,
Keeping paths straight with the king’s arm sustained.