In the name of
God the Merciful and the Compassionate

 الحمد لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه و لا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه جزء من دعاء الإفتتاح وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.             

! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و اتّباع امره و نهیه.

We were discussing the first article of
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We explained parts of this article
and presented the Islamic point of view. On of the points mentioned about this
article was human freedom and will which means human is born free. Explaining
this part, we indicated that this matter is a feature of the creation of human
and an ontological discussion. Quran states that human is born free and freedom
is not given by other sources to human beings or it is possible to be taken
away. But human is free in nature and like other gifts such as reason and
heart, he is endowed with it by great God. Certainly it is proven by reason.

Therefore according to Islam, human is a
resolute creature and he is endowed by this gift by God. In other word human is
given so many gifts and blessings. He possesses a complex and unknown physical
and material composition. And he is delicate and competent in spiritual dimension.
The collection of these unique features causes human to be competent for taking
the responsibility for the great divine deposit and God has invited him to the
infinite eternal position:

«وَ اللَّهُ
يَدْعُواْ إِلىَ‏ دَارِ السَّلَمِ».[1]

Because of these features such as freedom
and will, human is in a position that he should choose and if he chooses the
right path, he will get to that sacred goal and in case he deviates, he cannot
make use of his capacities and potentiality.

  It is clarified that possession of
reason, freedom and will by human which is mentioned in article one, is not a
legal matter but it is a preliminary principle which is accepted before
formulating human rights. There are two other points in first article that are
pieces of advice rather than a legal matter: “All human beings are born free
and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience
and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.”

Islam has stated so many important
orders and points about human rights and the necessity to act towards others in
a spirit of brotherhood. This fact that human beings have equal rights because
of their humanity is clear and race, nationality, traditions and language have
no role in codification of human rights. All people are equal whether woman or
man, child or adult and black or white and nobody is superior to others. The
only factor that is the criterion for superiority is virtue and observing human
and divine values. It means those who possess more moral virtues and observe
human principles and try more in honesty, abnegation and helping other people, are
more valuable. So Quran states:

«يا أَيُّهَا
النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثى‏ وَ جَعَلْناكُمْ شُعُوباً وَ
قَبائِلَ لِتَعارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقاكُمْ إِنَّ
اللَّهَ عَليمٌ خَبيرٌ »[2]

Human is an innate creature and knows
rights and wrongs innately when he is born.

فُجُورَها وَ تَقْواها»[3]

Those who put themselves in the path of
divine values will be saved and prosperous.

« قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن

But those who buried their capacities
and their potentiality did not flourish, wouldn’t be successful and disappoint

«وَ قَدْ خَابَ مَن

Human beings possess reason and freedom
innately and they should direct their capacities in the path of monotheism.
Nobody is born bad and evil but everybody is created based on a monotheistic nature.

«كُلُّ‏ مَوْلُودٍ
يُولَدُ عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ»[6] و « فِطْرَتَ
اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْها»[7]

Therefore all human beings know that God
is their creator.

« يَعْنِي
الْمَعْرِفَةَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَالِقُه‏»[8]

 Human beings with these common features,
are entitled to some rights and responsibilities and they are equal in rights
because they are human and nobody is superior to others. So based on Islamic
point of view people should not be divided to ruler and ruled or free and
slave, rather they are all in a monotheistic system so they should be
respected. Since the parents of human are Adam and Eve, human beings are
brothers and sisters and should feel responsibility towards one another and try
to solve problems in a spirit of brotherhood.

Human beings have rights towards one
another and Islam binds them to adhere to these rights since without such
adherence, they are not considered Muslim. So prophet Muhammad PBUH states:

«مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مِنْ
أُمَّتِي وَ هِمَّتُهُ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ لَمْ‏
يَهْتَمَ‏ بِأُمُورِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَيْسَ مِنْهُم‏».[9]

This order is not a slogan rather it is
a duty and obligation which muslims are responsible for it and if anybody can
solve a problem but neglect it, he will be reprimanded and rebuked.

If everybody thought like this, many
problems of human society would be solved.

But unfortunately this humane look to
others, is becoming weaker and weaker therefore social and spiritual interests
of people are being neglected and ignored.

Islam emphasizes the spirit of
brotherhood. Amir Al-Muminin orders Malek:

: « فَإِنَّهُمْ
صِنْفَانِ إِمَّا أَخٌ‏ لَكَ‏ فِي الدِّينِ وَ إِمَّا نَظِيرٌ لَكَ فِي الْخَلْق؛[10]  

People are divided into two groups: they
are your religious brothers or human beings like you so they should be
respected. So the authorities of society should like people from the bottom of
their heart and they should not take this as a slogan .

So in Islam, acting in a
spirit of brotherhood is not just an advice but it is an order whit legal
aspect. If anybody doesn’t respect the rights of his religious and human
brothers, he will be rebuked and reprimanded

1. Sura Al-Yunus, 25

2. Al- Hujurat, 13

3. Al-Shams, 8

Al-shams, 9

5. Al
–shams, 10

6. Al-Kafi,
v 2, p, 13

7. Al-Rum,

Al-Kafi, v2, p13

 9. Al- Kafi, v2, p164

10. Nahj
Al-Balagha, letter 53, p 427

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