Friday Prayer

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.
Attributes of Prophet Muhammad in the Quran
15. Summoner to God’s Worship
One attribute of the Prophet with which the Noble Quran characterizes the Prophet is the one mentioned in the Quran along with other attributes of the Prophet: “summoner to Allah by His permission” (Quran, 33:46), which is an attribute the Prophet is ordered by God to announce to the people. In Surah Yusuf, the Quran states:
قُلْ هَذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلَى بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي، وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Say, ‘This is my way. I summon to Allah with insight—I and he who follows me. Immaculate is Allah, and I am not one of the polytheists.’ (Yusuf, 108)
This attribute is so important that the Noble Quran describes it as the exclusive mission of the Prophet, as stated in Surah Ar-Ra’d:
قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَلَا أُشْرِكَ بِهِ، إِلَيْهِ أَدْعُو وَإِلَيْهِ مَآبِ
Say, ‘Indeed I have been commanded to worship Allah and not to ascribe any partner to Him. To Him do I summon [all mankind] and to Him will be my return.’ (Raʿd, 36)
In Surah al-Ahzab, the Quran mentions various attributes of the Prophet: “O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news, as a warner, as a summoner to Allah by His permission, and as a radiant lamp” (al-Ahzab, 45-46). Some Quranic exegetes have highlighted the qualification “by His permission” and discussed its significance. In particular, they have pondered why this qualification is not mentioned regarding the other attributes in the same verses and why it appears only for summoning to God.
The answer is that this qualification modifies the preceding attributes as well, namely “bearer of good news” and “warner.” These roles are also carried out by God’s permission. However, the attribute “radiant lamp” is a personal characteristic of the Prophet, not involving a specific action, and therefore, it is not modified by God’s permission.
14. Radiant Lamp
The Noble Quran characterizes the Prophet as a radiant lamp, giving light to its surrounding:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا؛ وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُنِيرًا
O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news, as a warner, as a summoner to Allah by His permission, and as a radiant lamp. (al-Ahzab, 45-46).
Quranic exegetes have discussed why the Prophet is described as a “radiant lamp” and not a “radiant sun,” even though the sun is certainly more radiant.
The reasoning behind this description is that the sun, despite all its greatness and radiance, is only visible during the day when it is in the sky without being occluded by clouds, and it only benefits those who face it. However, people can take lamps wherever they go, and no one is deprived of their radiance under any circumstances.
In fact, the radiance of the Prophet benefits everyone at all times, provided they desire to benefit from it.
15. Ummi Prophet
The most famous attribute of the Prophet, mentioned in two consecutive verses of Surah al-Aʿraf, is “ummi.” The Noble Quran sates:
الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِنْدَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ… أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
those who follow the Apostle, the untaught prophet, whose mention they find written with them in the Torah and the Evangel … they are the felicitous. (Aʿraf, 157)
… فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
So have faith in Allah and His Apostle, the untaught prophet, who has faith in Allah and His words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (Aʿraf, 158)
The term “ummi” is derived from the root word “umm,” and Quranic scholars have offered various interpretations based on what “umm” might mean. There are three commonly accepted interpretations of this term.
1. Attributed to “Umm” (Mother)
“Ummi” is derived from the Arabic word “umm,” meaning mother. Therefore, it refers to someone who remained in their natural state of illiteracy, not having acquired the knowledge of reading or writing.
2. Attributed to “Umma” (Community)
“Ummi” is derived from the Arabic word “umma,” meaning community. It refers to someone who is accustomed to the practices of the community or the majority of people. Since a significant number of people during that time were illiterate or unlettered, the Prophet is described as “ummi.” This is similar to the term “ʿammi” (layperson), which is attributed to “ʿamma” (majority of people), and it denotes someone who follows the methods and practices of the majority of people.
3. Attributed to “Umm al-Qura”
“Ummi” is derived from the term “Umm al-Qura” (Mother of Cities), which is a nickname for the city of Mecca. The Quran refers to Mecca as the Mother of all Cities, stating, “so that you may warn the Mother of Cities and those around it.”

In the first sense, “ummi” refers to someone who is uneducated or unlettered, but this does not imply that the Prophet was lacking in knowledge. Although conventional knowledge is typically acquired through education and literacy, prophets obtain their knowledge through divine revelation. Their knowledge comes directly from God, surpassing ordinary methods of learning.
The wisdom behind the Prophet’s illiteracy is explained in Surah al-ʿAnkabut: “You did not use to recite any scripture before it, nor did you write it with your right hand, for then the impugners would have been skeptical.” If the Prophet could read and write, people would doubt the authenticity of his divine message, accusing him of having learned it from a book or someone else.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment