Friday Prayer

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.
Attributes of Prophet Muhammad in the Quran
13. Witness over Human Actions
A. There are numerous Quranic verses suggesting that the Prophet serves as a witness over human actions. This attribute of the Prophet is sometimes applied in relation to the Muslim community alone and at other times more broadly, encompassing both the Prophet’s community and other human beings. It is occasionally explicitly stated that the Prophet also serves as a witness over the actions of people outside the Muslim community. From the collective body of Quranic verses, it can be inferred that the Prophet’s witnessing of people’s actions is not limited solely to the Muslim community.
In certain Quranic verses, this attribute of the Prophet is mentioned using the term “shāhid” (witness) addressed to the Prophet himself (in second-person form). One example is the verses in Surah al-Ahzab:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا؛ وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُنِيرًا
O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news and as a warner and as a summoner to Allah by His permission, and as a radiant lamp. (Al-Ahzab, 45-46)
In this verse, the Prophet is described with various attributes, each worthy of discussion: (1) witness, (2) bearer of good news (mubashshir), (3) warner (nadhir), (4) summoner to God (daʿi ila Allah), and (5) radiant lamp (siraj munir).
Sometimes, the Prophet is described in the Quran as a “witness” but addressed to others. In Sura al-Muzzammil people are addressed:
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ رَسُولًا شَاهِدًا عَلَيْكُمْ كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ رَسُولًا
Indeed We have sent to you an apostle, to be a witness to you, just as We sent an apostle to Pharaoh. (Muzzammil, 15)
B. In some verses of the Quran, the Prophet is addressed as a witness testifying over people’s actions, using the term “shahīd.” In these verses, the Prophet is said to be a witness over the earlier prophets.
وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ
The day We raise in every nation a witness against them from among themselves, We shall bring you as a witness against these. (Al-Nahl, 89)
فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا
So how shall it be, when We bring a witness from every nation and We bring you as a witness to them? (Al-Nisaʾ, 41)
The Prophet’s characterization as “shahīd” is also mentioned as addressed to the Islamic community:
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا
Thus We have made you a middle nation that you may be witnesses to the people, and that the Apostle may be a witness to you. (Al-Baqara, 143)
C. The Prophet’s role as a witness is also described using the term “ruʾya” (seeing). A verse in Surah al-Tawba states:
وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
And say, ‘Go on working: Allah will see your conduct, and His Apostle and the faithful [as well], and you will be returned to the Knower of the sensible and the Unseen, and He will inform you concerning what you used to do. (Al-Tawba, 105)
In this verse, both the Prophet and the believers are said to be aware of the actions of the hypocrites within the Muslim community. However, this does not refer to all believers but to a specific group among them, whom the Quran refers to as the “pious” (abrar).
14. Bearer of Good News and Warner
In numerous verses of the Quran, the Prophet is characterized as bearer of good news and warner:
إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا
Indeed We have sent you as a witness, and as a bearer of good news and warner. (Al-Fath, 8)
In certain verses of the Noble Quran, the main or the only duty and mission of the Prophet is said to be giving good news and warning:
وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا
With the truth did We send it down, and with the truth did it descend, and We did not send you except as a bearer of good news and as a warner. (Al-Israʾ, 105)
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا
We did not send you except as a bearer of good news and as a warner. (Al-Furqan, 56)

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