Friday Prayer

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.
Attributes of Prophet Muhammad in the Quran
11. Intercession on the Day of Resurrection
A. In Surah al-Isra, God the Exalted commands the Prophet: “And keep vigil for a part of the night, as a supererogatory [devotion] for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to a praiseworthy station” (Isra, 79).
What does the term “Praiseworthy Station” (maqam maḥmūd) mean? Is it a state where everyone who encounters the Prophet feels compelled to praise him?
Al-Tabarsi, a Shiite Quranic exegete, suggests that Islamic scholars concur that this denotes the station of intercession. According to this interpretation, on the Day of Resurrection, the Prophet will bear the Banner of Praise (Lawaʾ al-Hamd), around which all other prophets will gather. The Prophet will be the foremost intercessor before God, and his intercession will be accepted (Majmaʿ al-bayan, vol. 6, p. 284).
Hadiths within Islamic sources concur that the Praiseworthy Station signifies the station of intercession. These hadiths are compiled by al-Suyuti, a Sunni Quranic exegete, in his work al-Durr al-manthur (vol. 4, p. 197), and by al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani in his al-Burhan (vol. 2, pp. 438-440).
B. In Surah al-Duha, God the Exalted addresses Prophet Muhammad, saying:
وَالضُّحَى؛ وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَى؛ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَى؛ وَلَلْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِنَ الْأُولَى؛ وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَى
By the morning brightness, and by the night when it is calm! Your Lord has neither forsaken you, nor is He displeased with you, and the Hereafter shall be better for you than the world. Soon your Lord will give you [that with which] you will be pleased. (Duha, 1-5)
In this surah, after enumerating the blessings bestowed upon the Prophet by God in this world, there is a reference to the Day of Resurrection. The mention of a pleasing bestowal implies that this divine favor will be granted on the Day of Resurrection.
Since the Prophet is a “mercy to all the nations,” he cannot disregard the states of other people on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed, what pleases him is to save groups of people who maintained their connection with God and the Prophet but may suffer in the Hereafter due to their sins and wrongdoings. Their salvation comes through intercession. Hadiths within Islamic sources also interpret this “pleasing bestowal” as intercession.
It is noteworthy that intercession by God’s friends is contingent upon God’s permission. Without it, no one can intercede for others. Furthermore, God’s permission is not arbitrary but based on wisdom, encompassing those deserving of forgiveness and pardon, specifically those who, despite their sins and mistakes, never turned away from God. Although their connection to God may have weakened at times, they never completely severed it.
The promise of intercession, under such conditions, serves as both an encouragement and a warning to sinners. They should remain vigilant, for the sooner they abandon their sins and maintain their connection to God, the more they will remain worthy of intercession. Otherwise, they risk losing all avenues to salvation.
11. Possessor of “Kawthar” (Abundance)
When two sons of the Prophet, Qasim and ʿAbdallah, passed away, his enemies, such as ʿAs ibn Waʾil, taunted him as being without posterity and deprived of progeny. In response to this event, a specific surah was revealed in Mecca, directly addressing the Prophet:
إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ؛ فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ؛ إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ
Indeed We have given you abundance. So pray to your Lord, and sacrifice [the sacrificial camel]. Indeed it is your enemy who is without posterity. (Kawthar, 1-3)
Quranic exegetes hold varying interpretations regarding the meaning of “kawthar,” but one instance undoubtedly refers to abundant offspring. This interpretation stems from the verse apparently addressing the derogatory remark made by an individual who described the Prophet as “without posterity.” This implies that “kawthar” must be understood in a manner that directly responds to that individual. Hence, the first verse indicates that despite the malicious words of that individual, the Prophet is not devoid of posterity; rather, he will have abundant offspring.
The verse indeed prophesies a future phenomenon that is now observable and affirmed by all. Despite historical events where a large number of individuals from the Prophet’s offspring were killed in various eras, such as by the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, both individually and collectively, today the Islamic world witnesses a growing population of the Prophet’s descendants.
In his discussion on the meaning of “kawthar,” Fakhr al-Razi suggests that it signifies God’s preservation of the Prophet’s offspring throughout time. He further elaborates: “See how many from the Prophet’s household were killed, yet the world is filled with them, while no one from the Umayyad dynasty remains alive, worthy of mention. Also, observe the numerous distinguished scholars among the Prophet’s household, such as al-Baqir, al-Sadiq, al-Kazim, and al-Rida, peace be upon them, as well as figures like al-Nafs al-Zakiyya” (al-Tafsir al-kabir, vol. 32, p. 313).

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