Friday Prayer

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.

Prophet Muhammad’s Characteristics in the Quran
Within the Noble Quran, God illuminates Prophet Muhammad’s spiritual perfections as he navigated the challenges of delivering the final divine message in the remote lands of the Hijaz, far from the civilizations of his era.
1. Great Moral Character
The Noble Quran recounts instances where unbelievers who opposed the Prophet and his divine message resorted to mocking him and accusing him of insanity and madness. However, the Quran firmly rejects these accusations against the Apostle of God, affirming his clarity and wisdom:
مَا أَنْتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ؛ وَإِنَّ لَكَ لَأَجْرًا غَيْرَ مَمْنُونٍ
You are not, [O Muhammad], by the favor of your Lord, a madman. And indeed, for you is a reward uninterrupted. (Qalam, 3)
The Prophet’s exemplary moral response to those who mocked him and accused him of madness was so graceful and righteous that the Noble Quran describes him as possessing “great moral character,” emphasizing his role as the Prophet of Mercy.
وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ؛ فَسَتُبْصِرُ وَيُبْصِرُونَ؛ بِأَيْيِكُمُ الْمَفْتُونُ
And indeed, you are of a great moral character. So you will see and they will see Which of you is the afflicted [by a devil]. (Qalam, 4-6)
2. Leniency and Adaptability
As articulated in the Noble Quran, the Prophet possessed the necessary leniency and adaptability, at their highest degrees, to govern society. The Quran highlights that one of the key factors contributing to the Prophet’s success in his mission was his compassion and kindness.
In the aftermath of the Muslims’ defeat in the Battle of Uhud, due to some of the Prophet’s companions disobeying his military orders, Medina became filled with unfair criticisms regarding the Prophet’s decisions concerning the battle. The objections raised included:
First, why did he consult his companions about the location of the battle? Why didn’t he adhere to his initial decision of staying in Medina to defend the city, despite the majority view of the companions favoring fighting outside of the city?
Second, why, after the companions’ change in view and their agreement to defend Medina from within, did he persist with the initial plan and launch the battle outside of the city?
By highlighting the righteousness of the Prophet’s decision and action, both during the initial consultation and in maintaining the initial verdict, the Noble Quran states:
فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ
So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah. Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him]. (Al ʿImran, 159)
This verse underscores the Prophet’s leniency towards citizens who express their grievances to him. In this instance of social protest, the protesters were misguided as the Prophet bore no responsibility for the Muslims’ defeat in the Battle of Uhud. The fault lay with those who were tasked with guarding the pass of Uhud but defied the Prophet’s explicit orders and abandoned their positions. This lapse enabled the Meccan polytheists to mount a surprise attack against the Muslims and secure victory in the battle.
However, recognizing that some of the protesters were grieving Muslims who had lost their loved ones and were directing their grievances towards the Prophet, he responded with compassion and leniency, drawing upon divine grace and blessing. It is worth noting that the Prophet himself was also mourning the tragic loss of his uncle Hamza, revered as the master of the martyrs.
3. Kindliness towards Defeated Enemies
The Prophet’s kindness, generosity, and moral integrity shone brightly during the Conquest of Mecca, a pivotal moment when he triumphed over the Meccans who had harassed and waged bloody wars against him for years. Despite their past hostilities, the Prophet turned to them and asked, “What do you say and what do you think of me?”
Amidst their astonishment at the defeat, the Meccans recalled the Prophet’s chivalry, kindness, and outstanding moral character. In unison, they acknowledged, “We hold nothing but goodwill towards you. You are our gracious and generous brother, the son of our gracious and generous brother.”
In that moment, a wave of mercy enveloped the people of Mecca. The Prophet addressed them, reciting the Quranic verse, “No blame will there be upon you today. Allah will forgive you; and He is the most merciful of the merciful” (Yusuf, 92). Then, he further declared, “Despite your rejection of my mission and your expulsion of me from my homeland, I release you from any bonds of captivity. Go forth, you are free!”
The Prophet’s remarkable moral character and compassionate nature have been celebrated worldwide for centuries. Islamic poets, in their verses of praise, frequently extol his exemplary conduct. For example, Abu ʿAbdullah Sharaf al-Din Busiri, a distinguished poet and literary figure of the seventh century AH, penned a renowned ode lauding the Prophet. In one part, he eloquently captures the essence of the Prophet’s moral excellence:
He surpassed the prophets in appearance and character,
None of them came close to him in knowledge and graciousness.
What a noble character and countenance,
Infused with beauty, adorned with a smile.

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