Friday Prayer

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
All praise be to Allah with full gratitude for all His bounties. … All praise be to Allah: the master of the sovereignty, Who allows arks to flow [on seas], Who controls the winds, Who causes the day to break, Who administers the authority, and Who is the Lord of the worlds. All praise be to Allah for His forbearance despite His full knowledge. All praise be to Allah for His amnesty despite His full power. All praise be to Allah for the length of His respite during His wrath, while He is able to do whatever He wills.
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
We bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is one and has no partners. We bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger, whom He sent with guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions, though the polytheists should be averse.
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
I enjoin you, servants of Allah and myself, to have fear of God and comply with His commands and forbiddances, and warn you against His retribution.

The Name of the Prophet of Islam in the Quran
The name of the esteemed prophet of Islam, Muhammad, is mentioned in the Quran four times, each instance in the absent form.
وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ أَفَإِنْ مَاتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلَى أَعْقَابِكُمْ وَمَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئًا وَسَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ
Muhammad is but an apostle; [other] apostles have passed before him. If he dies or is slain, will you turn back on your heels? Anyone who turns back on his heels, will not harm Allah in the least, and soon Allah will reward the grateful. (Al ʿImran, 144)
مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ
Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah, and those who are with him are hard against the faithless and merciful amongst themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in worship], seeking Allah’s grace, and [His] pleasure. Their mark is [visible] on their faces, from the effect of prostration. (Fath, 29)
مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah has knowledge of all things. (Ahzab, 40)
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ
But those who have faith and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down to Muhammad—and it is the truth from their Lord—He shall absolve them of their misdeeds and set right their affairs. (Muhammad, 2)
How God Communicates with the Esteemed Prophet in the Quran
One characteristic of the Messenger of Allah is that in none of the divine addresses to him in the Quran is he called by his name, Muhammad. Instead, he is always addressed as “Messenger,” “Apostle,” or “Prophet.” However, other prophets are addressed in the Quran by their names. For instance, when addressing arch-prophets (Ulu al-ʿAzm) and other prophets, the noble Quran says:
وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ …
We said, ‘O Adam, dwell with your mate in paradise… (Baqara, 35)
قَالَ يَا نُوحُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ إِنَّهُ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَالِحٍ…
Said He, ‘O Noah! Indeed, He is not of your family. Indeed, he is [personification of] unrighteous conduct. … (Hud, 46)
وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ؛ قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا …
We called out to him, ‘O Abraham! You have indeed fulfilled your vision!… (Saffat, 104-105)
قَالَ يَا مُوسَى إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِسَالَاتِي وَبِكَلَامِي…
He said, ‘O Moses, I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My speech. … (Aʿraf, 144)
إِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى إِنِّي مُتَوَفِّيكَ وَرَافِعُكَ إِلَيَّ …
When Allah said, ‘O Jesus, I shall take you[r soul], and I shall raise you up toward Myself … (Al ʿImran, 55)
يَا زَكَرِيَّا إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَامٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَى …
‘O Zechariah! Indeed We give you the good news of a son, whose name is ‘‘John.’’ … (Maryam, 7)
يَا يَحْيَى خُذِ الْكِتَابَ بِقُوَّةٍ …
‘O John!’ [We said,] ‘Hold on with power to the Book!’ … (Maryam, 12)
On the other hand, when addressing the esteemed Prophet, the Quran says:
يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لَا يَحْزُنْكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ …
O Apostle! Do not grieve for those who are active in [promoting] unfaith… (Maʾida, 41)
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا
O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news and as a warner. (Ahzab, 45)
Clearly, addressing someone by their title conveys special respect and honor, while addressing them by name does not necessarily imply humility.
The Story of the Prophet’s Life in the Quran
The noble Quran does not narrate the life story of the esteemed prophet of Islam, although it makes references to certain events that occurred during his time in some instances. This has prompted objections from some Orientalists regarding the Quran. They question why the Quran does not detail the Prophet’s life story, unlike the Gospels which extensively feature Jesus’s life, or the Torah which recounts Moses’s life.
In response to this objection, it should be noted that the Quran is neither a book of stories nor a book of history. Therefore, when it recounts the narratives of past prophets, it only highlights the points that carry lessons for human happiness and well-being. Regarding the events of the Prophet’s era, it only narrates those that offer lessons regarding human welfare or practical guidance.
In fact, a challenge within the Bible arises when considering its authenticity as a divine scripture supposedly revealed to Moses and Jesus. Questions emerge as to why it delves into details of their deaths or crucifixions.
This suggests that at least the entirety of the presently available Torah and Gospel may not solely consist of the verses revealed to Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them). Instead, there are instances in these scriptures that were later added by other authors. This stands in contrast to the Quran, where all verses are those revealed to the Apostle of Allah.

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