اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
Praise is to God with all his praises, for all his blessings. . . Praise is to God, the owner of the property, the operator of the orbit, the bender of the wind, the glory of the morning, the religion of the beliefs, lord of the worlds; praise is to God for his dream after his knowledge and thank God for forgiveness after his power, and praise be to God for his long patience in his wrath and he is capable to do what he wills
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
And we bear witness that there is no god but God alone, without partner, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger, he sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that he might proclaim it over all religion, even if the polytheists hated it.
National solidarity and cooperation in the way of resistance to divine faith
The holy Qur’an says that in the situation when the pharaohputs the most pressure on Musa Kalim and his followers, God orders to establish solidarity between them and taking care of each other for the greater strength of the people of Musa to stand and resist the pressures and conspiracies of the pharaohs:
وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى مُوسَى وَأَخِيهِ أَنْ تَبَوَّآ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتًا وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ؛
We revealed to Moses and his brother [saying], ‘Settle your people in the city, and let your houses face each other, and maintain the prayer, and give good news to the faithful.’(Yunes: 87)
The curse of Musa Kalimullah and the pharaohs’ troubles
Prophet Musa invited the pharaohs to God, but his invitations and advices did not bring any benefit, rather they added to their rebellion and the persecution and torture of the believers. Musa Kalim complained to his Lord against this situation and cursed the pharaoh and his people:
وَقَالَ مُوسَى رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ آتَيْتَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَأَهُ زِينَةً وَأَمْوَالًا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا، رَبَّنَا لِيُضِلُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِكَ، رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَى أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَاشْدُدْ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُوا حَتَّى يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ؛
Moses said, ‘Our Lord! You have given Pharaoh and his elite glamour and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord, that they may lead [people] astray from Your way! Our Lord! Blot out their wealth and harden their hearts so that they do not believe until they sight the painful punishment.’ (Yunes: 88)
God replied to Musa and Aaron that I heard and answered your prayers: قَالَ قَدْ أُجِيبَتْ دَعْوَتُكُمَا فَاسْتَقِيمَا، وَلَا تَتَّبِعَانِّ سَبِيلَ الَّذِينَ لَايَعْلَمُونَ؛ Said He, ‘Your supplication has already been granted. So be steadfast, and do not follow the way of those who do not know.’ (Yunes: 89)
When Musa’a prayer was answered, Pharaoh and his people suffered from drought and famine and the reduction of agricultural products and fruit trees, so that they might realize their weakness and inability and the powerlessness of their king and god Pharaoh in front of the divine power and theylearnt a lesson. The Quran says: وَلَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ بِالسِّنِينَ وَنَقْصٍمِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ؛ Certainly We afflicted Pharaoh’s clan with droughts and loss of produce, so that they may take admonition. (A’raf: 130)
But they were not admonished and were drowning in depravity, they turned away from believing in the clear signs and verses that indicated the mission of Musa, hence they continued their misdeeds.
It was at this time that all kinds of calamities and misfortunes fell on them, so that they might come to their senses and wake up from the sleep of neglect:
فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الطُّوفَانَ وَالْجَرَادَ وَالْقُمَّلَ وَالضَّفَادِعَ وَالدَّمَ آيَاتٍ مُفَصَّلَاتٍ، فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا مُجْرِمِينَ؛
So We sent against them a flood and locusts, lice, frogs and blood, as distinct signs. But they acted arrogantly, and they were a guilty lot. (A’raf: 133)
Even though various calamities had been inflicted on them and they had suffered a lot of casualties and damages, but at the same time, they did not learn a lesson and still rebelled and were sinful people.
The Qur’an says that every time a calamity came, the pharaohs would reach out to Musa to ask God to remove the calamity, and they promised to believe if the calamity was removed. They broke the covenant and continued their disbelief:
وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّجْزُ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِنْدَكَ لَئِنْ كَشَفْتَ عَنَّا الرِّجْزَ لَنُؤْمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرْسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ؛ فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الرِّجْزَ إِلَى أَجَلٍ هُمْ بَالِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمْ يَنْكُثُونَ؛
Whenever a plague fell upon them, they would say, ‘O Moses, invoke your Lord for us by the covenant He has made with you. If you remove the plague from us, we will certainly believe in you and let the Children of Israel go along with you.’ But when We had removed the plague from them until a term that they should have completed, behold, they broke their promise. (A’raf: 134-135)
The fourth period: the migration of Musa and the Israelites to Palestine
Musa and his followers, who were fed up with the oppression of the pharaohs, finally decided to leave Egypt with a revelation from God, and they moved from Egypt to Palestine during a night.
According to the Torah, after these plagues that befell the pharaohs, they consented to the departure of Musa and the Israelites from Egypt:
In the same night, Pharaoh called Musa and Aaron and said to them: “Get out of the land of Egypt as soon as possible and take the Israelites with you. Go and worship God as you wish; take your flocks and herds. But before you go, pray for me too.” The people of Egypt also urged the people of Israel to leave Egypt as soon as possible. They said to the Israelites: “Get out of here before you kill us all.”
… God had made the Israeli tribe respectable in the eyes of the people of Egypt, so that they gave them whatever they asked of them. In this way they took the wealth of Egypt with them.
… In the same night, the Israelites left Ramesses and went to Sukkot. Their number, apart from women and children, was about six hundred thousand men who were moving on foot. There were other people among them who came out of Egypt with them. Many flocks and herds went out with them, too.
… The Israelites had lived in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years. It was on the last day of the 430th year that god’s armies came out of the land of Egypt.