اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
Praise is to God with all his praises, for all his blessings. . . Praise is to God, the owner of the property, the operator of the orbit, the bender of the wind, the glory of the morning, the religion of the beliefs, lord of the worlds; praise is to God for his dream after his knowledge and thank God for forgiveness after his power, and praise be to God for his long patience in his wrath and he is capable to do what he wills
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
And we bear witness that there is no god but God alone, without partner, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger, he sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that he might proclaim it over all religion, even if the polytheists hated it.
Musa grew up in the Egyptian Pharaoh’s palace
Pharaoh and his wife Asia were standing in their palace overlooking the Nile River; their eyes fell on a chest that was being carried up and down by the waves of the river.
Pharaoh ordered the officials to take the box from the water and bring it to him. Asia opened its cover and when Pharaoh’s wife saw the child inside felt a great passion and love towards the kid.
Pharaoh was furious when he saw the child and said: Why is this boy not killed? He decided to kill the baby, but his wife Asia, who was by his side, suggested that he adopt the baby and choose a nanny for him. Because they were deprived of the blessing of having a son, Pharaoh accepted Asia’s words and ignored killing Musa.
Soon, they felt that the baby was hungry and needed milk. At the order of Pharaoh, the officers went to find a nurse, they brought several nurses, but the baby did not drink their milk. Finally, with the guidance of an Israeli woman, they went to Moses’ mother and brought him to Pharaoh’s palace and gave him the baby. And the baby was nursed by Moses’ mother. In this way, God fulfilled his promise to Moses’ mother: “Do not afraid and do not be sad that we will return him to you”.
Mother of the prophet Musa, peace upon him, brought the kid to Pharaoh’s house after his infancy and entrusted the child to them, he was brought up in the bosom of Pharaoh and his wife. The holy Qur’an quotes Pharaoh’s words to Moses:
قَالَ أَلَمْ نُرَبِّكَ فِينَا وَلِيدًا وَلَبِثْتَ فِينَا مِنْ عُمُرِكَ سِنِينَ؛
He [i.e. Pharaoh] said, ‘Did we not rear you as a child among us, and did you not stay with us for years of your life? (Sho’ara: 18)
The entrance of Musa into the community
When Musa reached maturity and gained tremendous physical strength, one day he left Pharaoh’s palace and entered the city anonymously. He saw two people quarreling with each other, one of them was from the Sabaeans (Israelis) and the other one was from the Copts (Pharaoh’s tribe). The Sabaean asked help from Musa; he knew the pharaoh’s tribe was cruel people, so he rushed to his aid and slapped his enemy so hard that he lost his life. Moses regretted what he had done and considered it an evil act and asked God for forgiveness for the sin he had committed. Musa asked God to accept his repentance and not make him a helper of criminals. God forgave him and accepted his repentance:
وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَى حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا فَوَجَدَ فِيهَا رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلَانِ هَذَا مِنْ شِيعَتِهِ وَهَذَا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِنْ شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَى فَقَضَى عَلَيْهِ قَالَ هَذَا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُضِلٌّ مُبِينٌ؛ قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَغَفَرَ لَهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ؛ قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَا أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيرًا لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ؛
[One day] he entered the city at a time when its people were not likely to take notice. He found there two men fighting, this one from among his followers, and that one from his enemies. The one who was from his followers sought his help against him who was from his enemies. So Moses hit him with his fist, whereupon he expired. He said, ‘This is of Satan’s doing. Indeed he is clearly a misguiding enemy.’ He said, ‘My Lord! I have wronged myself. Forgive me!’ So He forgave him. Indeed, He is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful. He said, ‘My Lord! As You have blessed me, I will never be a supporter of the guilty.’ (Qesas: 15-17)
Non-cooperation with oppressors
Musa’s prayer in this verse is a great lesson for all people. Those who cause corruption in the world, spill the blood of innocent people on the ground, oppress weak people, start wars and murders in every corner of the world, and should not be supported by other people. During his martyrdom, Imam Ali, peace upon him, said as his last will to his children: كُونَا لِلظَّالِمِ خَصْماً، وَلِلْمَظْلُومِ عَوْناً؛ Be the enemy of the oppressors and the helper of the oppressed.
On the second day, Musa went into the city again, while he was worried about the previous day’s incident and was afraid that he would be wanted. Moses saw that the same man was quarreling with one of Pharaoh’s people, that Israelite man asked Moses for help again, Moses scolded him, why is he constantly quarreling? But again, when he felt that he was oppressed, he went to him to defend him and prevent the oppression of the oppressor:
فَأَصْبَحَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي اسْتَنْصَرَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَسْتَصْرِخُهُ قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَى إِنَّكَ لَغَوِيٌّ مُبِينٌ؛
He rose at dawn in the city, fearful and vigilant, when behold, the one who had sought his help the day before, shouted for his help [once again]. Moses said to him, ‘You are indeed clearly perverse!’ (Qesas: 18)
The Coptic person recognized the cruel Musa and reminded him of the previous day’s murder:
فَلَمَّا أَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبْطِشَ بِالَّذِي هُوَ عَدُوٌّ لَهُمَا قَالَ يَا مُوسَى أَتُرِيدُ أَنْ تَقْتُلَنِي كَمَا قَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا بِالْأَمْسِ إِنْ تُرِيدُ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ جَبَّارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا تُرِيدُ أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ؛
But when he wanted to strike him who was an enemy of both of them, he said, ‘Moses, do you want to kill me, just like the one you killed yesterday? You only want to be a tyrant in the land, and you do not desire to be one who brings about reform.’ (Qesas: 19)
Musa realized the story had been exposed, and he withdrew from the fight. On the other hand, Pharaoh was informed about the murder the day before. And he had formed a consultative meeting and issued the sentence to kill Musa.
Faithful of Pharaoh’s people helps Musa
The Qur’an reports that a man who was from Pharaoh’s tribe learned about Pharaoh’s decision; in Islamic religious sources, that man is known as “Faithful of Pharaoh’s people”. He, who was suffering from Pharaoh’s cruelty and crimes, and his hope was on Moses to save the oppressed people of Egypt, when he felt that Moses was in danger, he rushed to him from the farthest part of the city (Pharaoh’s palace) and informed him about this danger. Moses left Egypt by announcement of this faithful man:
وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ يَسْعَى قَالَ يَا مُوسَى إِنَّ الْمَلَأَ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ فَاخْرُجْ إِنِّي لَكَ مِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ؛ فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ؛
There came a man from the city outskirts, hurrying. He said, ‘Moses! The elite are indeed conspiring to kill you. So leave. I am indeed your well-wisher.’ So he left the city, fearful and vigilant. He said, ‘My Lord! Deliver me from the wrongdoing lot.’ (Qesas: 20 – 21)
The action of the Faithful of Pharaoh’s people is a great lesson for everyone, that sometimes a person can change the course of history with a correct decision. The action that the believers of Pharaoh did by informing Moses about Pharaoh’s conspiracy, and with the departure of Moses from the city, the first stage of the biography of Moses in the Qur’an was completed.