اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
Praise is to God with all his praises, for all his blessings. . . Praise is to God, the owner of the property, the operator of the orbit, the bender of the wind, the glory of the morning, the religion of the beliefs, lord of the worlds; praise is to God for his dream after his knowledge and thank God for forgiveness after his power, and praise be to God for his long patience in his wrath and he is capable to do what he wills
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
And we bear witness that there is no god but God alone, without partner, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger, he sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that he might proclaim it over all religion, even if the polytheists hated it.
Common principles in the life of the prophets
Principle 11: Resolving the conflicts and differences of the people
One of the common principles in the mission of the divine prophets is to resolve conflicts between human beings in human societies. The holy Qur’an says:
كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْياً بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ.
Mankind were a single community; then Allah sent the prophets as bearers of good news and warners, and He sent down with them the Book with the truth, that it may judge between the people concerning that about which they differed, and none differed in it except those who had been given it, after the manifest proofs had come to them, out of envy among themselves. Then Allah guided those who had faith to the truth of what they differed in, by His will, and Allah guides whomever He wishes to a straight path. (Baghare: 213)
At the beginning of the creation, and since the formation of the human societies, differences and conflicts arose among human beings. These social differences are the result of conflicts between human interests. And since man is a civil being by nature and lives in the society, the occurrence of these differences is natural and obligatory and there is no escape from it.
There are two points that can be extracted from this holy verse of the holy Qur’an:
1. Prophets came to end human strife. Peace, friendship and peaceful living of human beings have been the goal of all divine prophets.
2. The resolution of disputes and the establishment of a society with peaceful social relations depend on the existence and adherence to law and order.
If the law is appropriate and just and all human beings in society adhere to it, strife and discord among individuals will disappear and peace and friendship will replace war and enmity, which is one of the social goals of God in sending the messengers. According to the holy Qur’an, the proper laws of human societies are laws based on natural monotheism and instinctual morality. Correct and instructive legislation must sprout and grow on the genesis of creation and existence, and should originate from that stage.
Dispute before the law; Dispute after the law
This verse of the holy Qur’an refers to two kinds of differences between human beings:
1. Pre-law dispute: A dispute that arises among human beings before the submission of opinions and thoughts on divine laws, as well as the adoption of a just and appropriate law. In the first part of the verse, it is mentioned:
بَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ
Mankind were a single community; then Allah sent the prophets as bearers of good news and warners, and He sent down with them the Book with the truth, that it may judge between the people concerning that about which they differed, (Baghare: 213a)
This form of disagreement is the result of human nature. A couple of people who think in the same field will often disagree to each other. This state is not reprehensible because these kinds of differences cause the thoughts and decisions of human beings become more measured and mature. Growth and development in society might be achieved through the conflict of ideas and opinions. The hadith of “the difference of a nation is mercy” which is attributed to the holy prophet (if this attribution is correct) may refer to the same meaning.
The principle of consultation in social decision-making, which is emphasized by God in the holy Qur’an, has the same meaning. Qur’an says, “Consult them about the matter,” approves the expression of conflict opinions before making a decision and approval of the law.
2. Post-law dispute: The difference that arises among human beings after the presentation of opinions and thoughts on the divine laws, as well as after the approval of the appropriate law in the society. This is mentioned in the following verse of the Qur’an:
… وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْياً بَيْنَهُمْ؛
… and none differed in it except those who had been given it, after the manifest proofs had come to them, out of envy among themselves. (Baghare: 213b)
This difference in the society causes stagnation and leads the society to decline and has been condemned in the verses of the holy Qur’an. In this verse and in the other verses, he introduces and says such a difference with the intention of oppression,
… وَآتَيْنَاهُمْ بَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُوا إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْياً بَيْنَهُمْ؛
… and We gave them manifest precepts. But they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them, out of envy among themselves. (Jasiye: 17)
Principle 12: Evangelism and warning
Another common principle in the life of the divine prophets according to the holy Qur’an is that all prophets are evangelists and warner. The holy Qur’an says about the prophets:
وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ…
We do not send the apostles except as bearers of good news and as warners, but …. (Kahf: 56)
Regarding the holy prophet, the holy Qur’an says:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِداً وَمُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً،
O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news and as a warner (Ahzab: 45)
The divine prophets came to invite people to do good deeds and worship God by preaching about the paradise, the blessings of the hereafter and divine pleasure, and by warning about the hell and the punishment of the ugly deeds; so to prevent people from committing those deeds, and to restrict the commission to the acts which might lead to kill rights of others.