اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
Praise is to God with all his praises, for all his blessings. . . Praise is to God, the owner of the property, the operator of the orbit, the bender of the wind, the glory of the morning, the religion of the beliefs, lord of the worlds; praise is to God for his dream after his knowledge and thank God for forgiveness after his power, and praise be to God for his long patience in his wrath and he is capable to do what he wills
و نشهد أن لا اله الا الله وحده لا شریک له، و أَنَّ محمداً عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
And we bear witness that there is no god but God alone, without partner, and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger, he sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that he might proclaim it over all religion, even if the polytheists hated it.
Thirtieth sign of the pious:
يَعْفُو عَمَّنْ ظَلَمَهُ، وَ يُعْطِي مَنْ حَرَمَهُ، وَ يَصِلُ مَنْ قَطَعَهُ،
He forgives the wicked, and gives to the one who is deprived, and joins the one who has interrupted his bonds,
That is, if someone oppresses you, deprives you in the case of need, and cuts you off, do not just confront them, but treat them in the best and most beautiful possible way. Respond to his oppression with kindness and do not ignore him when they are in the trouble and need, and even though he has separated ties with you, take a step forward and try to get reconnected.
Forgiveness for the one who has cruelled a person arises from the attribute of courage, because he forgives the oppression of the oppressor while he has the power to take revenge on him; and also giving to someone who has been deprived of it is the result of generosity; and to associate with a person who has separated ties with a human being is both a sign of modesty and a sign of courage.
These attributes represent a great spirit and a trained soul that is not affected by the wrongdoings of others and does not go beyond morality and rationality based on revenge.
There are many verses in the holy Qur’an about forgiveness and generosity, including that the almighty God says:
خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَ أْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَ أَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجاهِلِين.
Adopt [a policy of] excusing [the faults of people], bid what is right, and turn away from the ignorant. (A’raf: 199)
وَ لْيَعْفُوا وَ لْيَصْفَحُوا أَ لا تُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَ اللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.
And let them excuse and forbear. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful. (Noor: 22)
There are verses in the holy Qur’an that call for retaliation and revenge in the field of sharia and divine laws; and says:
فَمَنِ اعْتَدى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدى عَلَيْكُمْ وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ؛
So should anyone aggress against you, assail him in the manner he assailed you, and be wary of Allah, and know that Allah is with the God wary. (Baghare: 194)
Now the question arises how the verses of retribution can be combined with the verses that command forgiveness and generosity?
The almighty God gives those who have been oppressed the right to retaliate and revenge against the oppressor (even within the bounds of the holy sharia) without resorting to excesses in taking the right, but at the same time invites them to something higher and more valuable which corrects the wrongdoer and causes self-improvement and promotion of the spiritual status of the oppressed person, most of the times; when man has power over revenge, forgiveness is a kind of struggle against the soul and spirit of avenge, which strengthens faith and piety in the human body.
The holy Qur’an, in a general instruction to the holy Prophet of Islam, who is the example of all Muslims, says:
ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ؛
Repel evil in the best way (and respond the bad with good). (Momenoon: 96)
And in the surah of Fosselat, the result of this gracious encounter is stated by the almighty God himself as follows:
وَ لا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَ لا السَّيِّئَةُ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَ بَيْنَهُ عَداوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ.
Good and evil [conduct] are not equal. Repel [evil] with what is best. [If you do so,] he between whom and you was enmity, will then be as though he were a sympathetic friend. (Fosselat: 34)
The effect of this gracious behavior is that in most cases, with the remorse and punishment of the wrongdoer, the hearts get softer, the ambiguities get removed, and enmity and difference get into friendship and love. But this magnanimity and deliberate behavior is not the work of everyone and may be possible only through self-made people who have trained their souls for such occasions. This fact is well stated in the following verse of Fosselat surah:
وَ ما يُلَقَّاها إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَ ما يُلَقَّاها إِلاَّ ذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ؛
But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except the greatly endowed. (Fosselat: 35)
Imam Ali, greetings to him, has considered these three attributes as the signs and characteristics of the pious. The Messenger of God, peace upon him, said:
أَ لَا أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى خَيْرِ أَخْلَاقِ الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ؟ تَصِلُ مَنْ قَطَعَكَ وَ تُعْطِي مَنْ حَرَمَكَ وَ تَعْفُو عَمَّنْ ظَلَمَكَ.
Shall I not guide you to the best morals of this world and the hereafter? (The best morality in this world and the hereafter is to) connect with the one who has cut you off (and has cut off his relationship) and give to the one who has deprived you and forgive the one who has done a wrong to you. (Kafi, volume 2, page 107)
Believers who have these three qualities will appear on the Day of Judgment with indescribable honor. And one of the fruits of these three attributes, which are specified in the narrations of the Imams, is that they bring honor to their owner. Imam Baqir, peace upon him, says:
ثَلَاثٌ لَا يَزِيدُ اللَّهُ بِهِنَّ الْمَرْءَ الْمُسْلِمَ إِلَّا عِزّاً: الصَّفْحُ عَمَّنْ ظَلَمَهُ وَ إِعْطَاءُ مَنْ حَرَمَهُ وَ الصِّلَةُ لِمَنْ قَطَعَهُ؛
There are three things that do not increase but the dignity of the Muslim: forgiving the one who has done wrong, giving it to the one who is deprived of it, and establishing a bond with the one who has interrupted the ties. (Kafi, volume 2, page 109)