بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ بِجَمِیعِ مَحَامِدِه کُلِّهَا عَلَی جَمِیعِ نِعَمِهِ کُلِّهَا… اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ مالِکِ الْمُلْکِ مُجْرِی الْفُلْکِ مُسَخِّرِ الرِّیاحِ فالِقِ الاْصْباحِ دَیّانِ الدّینِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمینَ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی حِلْمِهِ بَعْدَ عِلمِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی عَفْوِهِ بَعْدَ قُدْرَتِهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ عَلی طُولِ اَناتِهِ فی غَضَبِهِ وَهُوَ قادِرٌ عَلی ما یُریدُ
ثم الصلاه و السلام علی محمد عبده و رسوله ارسله بالهدی و دین الحق لیظهره علی الدین کله و لو کره المشرکون
اوصیکم عبادالله و نفسی بتقوی الله و اتباع امره و نهیه، و اخوفکم من عقابه
The second sign of the believers: Prudence with gentleness
وَ حَزْماً فِی لِینٍ
And with the foresight, he is gentle.
The term “hazm” is meant for foresight, and foresight is what keeps people away from regretting. Anyone who thinks of the end of everything, decides with his own mind and with the help of the opinions of others, and does not do anything without consulting with the experts, will never regret his deeds, though he will not achieve the desired result and they fail. Because he is comfortable with his own conscience, having gone all the way to the right decision. Amir al-Mu’minin in Nahj al-Balagha refers to the same meaning and result for Hazm and states:
ثَمَرَةُ التَّفْرِيطِ النَّدَامَةُ، وَ ثَمَرَةُ الْحَزْمِ السَّلَامَةُ (نهج البلاغه، حکمت181)
The result of short-sightedness is regret, and result of foresight is wellness.
The most important thing that takes the farsightedness and foresight away from man is greed, which becomes the veil of wisdom. Someone who wishes for something can never make a wise decision about it. Coveting everything prevents wise and prudent decisions. The Amir al-muminin says:
أَكْثَرُ مَصَارِعِ الْعُقُولِ، تَحْتَ بُرُوقِ الْمَطَامِعِ (نهج البلاغه، حکمت219)
Coveting small interests, repelling competitors, fleeting pleasures, and so on, darkens one’s eyes for judgment and prevents one from seeing the consequences. Not seeing the end result will lead to bad luck and regret. And it causes man to covet long-term wishes, to deceive the flattering, and to spend his time and life in vain for affairs that ultimately have nothing but regrets.
Rumi recommends that if you are invited to a congregation where many disciples and clients are gathered, it is better to get sick and not to attend! It is better to avoid these disciples who steal your life and your time.
The Qur’anic example of foresight
One of the things that has been mentioned in the Holy Quran as foresight is about trading with people. There are many cases where the distrust of others has led to the loss of one’s right, or the conflict between two partners, or two friends. The Holy Quran says about the transfer of property, as a loan, or as a mortgage, or as a sale:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنْتُمْ بِدَيْنٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ وَلْيَكْتُبْ بَيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِالْعَدْلِ وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّنْ تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَنْ تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَى وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَنْ تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَى أَجَلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَى أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ وَلَا يُضَارَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلَا شَهِيدٌ وَإِنْ تَفْعَلُوا فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ ﴿بقره:۲۸۲﴾
O you who believe! When you incur debt among yourselves for a certain period of time, write it down. And have a scribe write in your presence, in all fairness. And let no scribe refuse to write, as God has taught him. So let him write, and let the debtor dictate. And let him fear God, his Lord, and diminish nothing from it. But if the debtor is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable to dictate, then let his guardian dictate with honesty. And call to witness two men from among you. If two men are not available, then one man and two women whose testimony is acceptable to all—if one of them fails to remember, the other would remind her. Witnesses must not refuse when called upon. And do not think it too trivial to write down, whether small or large, including the time of repayment. That is more equitable with God, and stronger as evidence, and more likely to prevent doubt—except in the case of a spot transaction between you—then there is no blame on you if you do not write it down. And let there be witnesses whenever you conclude a contract, and let no harm be done to either scribe or witness. If you do that, it is corruption on your part. And fear God. God teaches you. God is aware of everything.
All this is emphasized by the Holy Qur’an on the precise recording of transactions between the people, and to have a just witness to it, and all is to create a healthy, friendly and correct social relations in the religious community, though the result of such prudence in dealing with people. Is kind of a suspicion to others.
A person who wishes to act decently and unconsciously will become suspicious of others, so why they love him and what is their intent and because of what they have respect for him?
However, foresight will be accompanied by violence and a lack of intimacy with others, which will annoy people, and this is also a sign of foresight. In the words of the amir Al-Mu’minin, there are those who have combined foresight with modesty and softness and have avoided double-foresight in their treatment to others