In the name of God, the Compassionate and the Merciful
لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في
أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه ولا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه جزء من
دعاء الإفتتاح وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله
الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.
عبادالله ! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و
اتّباع امره و نهیه.
One of the points about the sharia
and the way the exalted God has specified for the happiness of life is
completely clear and it is obvious that the goodness of each person is the same
way that has been determined for two reasons: firstly, the exalted God is wise and sagacious
and his order is issued according to his wisdom and justice. Therefore, the
responsibilities he leaves to human beings are out of corruptions and vices.
Secondly, as long as conditions are not present for fulfilling obligations, the
exalted God does not make human beings fulfill obligations. For example,
although prayers include personal and social benefits, it was not wajib necessary as an
obligation at the beginning of Be that prophet s revelation since people were
not ready enough to fulfill it. Moreover, all Islamic rules were not necessary
to fulfill at once, but they became necessary to fulfill little by little when
there were enough conditions.
Another point is that fulfilling obligations is necessary if there
is enough chance to know rules, their aspects and conditions for fulfilling
them. Hence, obligations the obliged cannot know are not issued by God. For
example, before Eid-al Fitr arrives, the prohibition of fasting of that day
should be said to the obliged; otherwise, punishing someone for his or her sins
is not permitted before he or she knows them.
It should be also said that all conditions related to obligations
should be considered in issuing obligations in the sharia of the Islam, these
conditions may be the nature of obligations, the obliged or the obligations.
The nature of obligations means that they should be out of vices
and ugliness. Moreover, obligations should be issued by God before human
beings are obliged to fulfill them so
that the obliged can have enough chance to know the conditions and aspects of his
or her obligations.
Two points should be considered about the obliged: a obligations
should not be in a way that the obliged cannot fulfill. In other words, whatever
can be done should be considered as obligations. Hence, it is not appropriate
to oblige human being to fly in the sky because he or she cannot fly in the
sky. b Whatever is considered as obligations should be good. In other words,
they should definitely have benefits; therefore, they are called wajib
obligations. If not, they are called mustahab obligations. Of course, it is
completely clear that if doing something is necessary, giving it up will have
corrupted consequences and will be haram; therefore, human beings should refuse
to give them up. Hence, fulfilling obligations should have benefits and be much
better than doing other things.
The conditions of the person that obliges others to fulfill
obligations include: a he or she should know the benefits and the
disadvantages of a job. In other words, he should know the attributes of an
action so that he should not order others to vulgar and ugly actions; b He
should know how much to reward actions so that he can reward others fairly and
anyone can receive his or her rewards; c He should refuse to do vulgar actions
and never does them so that he rewards people that obey him well.
The conditions of the obliged include: a the obliged should be
wise; b he or she can continue his or her life; c When he or she wants to
fulfill obligations, they should be able to do them; d he or she should have
enough knowledge about them. 
Some have explained these conditions: researchers have considered
general conditions of obligations as four things: maturity, wisdom, power and knowledge.
We should know that these conditions are not to the same extent, but they are
in different extents. In other words, maturity and wisdom are basic conditions
of fulfilling obligations because immature and crazy people do not have
obligations to fulfill and they are not reprimanded. Power is the basic condition
of fulfilling obligations. In other words, persons that are not able to fulfill
obligations are not reprimanded and their fulfillment is dependent on their
power, as long as they cannot fulfill them, they are not reprimanded. knowledge
is another condition of obligations. Obligations have been determined for
ignorant people and they are not reprimanded as long as they are not aware of
By paying attention to the conditions, it can be concluded that the
Islam pays special attention to all conditions and responsibilities, shows the
path and specifies obligations for human beings so that he or she can be free in his or her life
through the sharia of Islam. Therefore, if someone wants bliss and happiness in
life and the doomsday and wants to achieve the desired perfection, he or she
can reach perfect destination through the path specified in the sharia as he or
she has the freedom and choice to obey none of the orders of God, but he or she
should expect neither respect in this world nor reward in the doomsday. There
is no question that such people will not have enough relaxation in society
because if people ignore the sharia and the religious doctrines, they forget
remembering God and the name of God. Therefore, separation from the sharia and religious
doctrines makes people act according to their desires and devil needs. Then
vices are replaced with virtues; as a consequence, the society will not move in
the right path.
1. Abu Al-Hasan Shoarani , the
translation and the explanation of the book Kashf Al-Morad p 457
2. The mentioned conditions are expressed in all theosophy books
such as Tajrid Al-Eteghad written by Khaje Nasr Al-Din Tusi and Kashf
Al-Morad written by Allame Helli
3. Deceased Sayyed Abd Al-Hussein Tayyeb, the
book Kalam Al-Tayyeb v 1 p 27