Islamic Center Hamburg
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NewsID : 56582
Date of publication : 7/30/2014 1:45:16 PM
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Imam of the mosque and manager of the Islamic centre of Hamburg Mr. Ayatollah Dr. Ramezani

Islamic Studies 116- Islam and the Sharia10

Whenever common people and leaders respect the rights of each other and people implement the rights of their leader and vice versa, rights will be highly valuable in that society and the rules of the religion will be implemented.

In the name of God, the Compassionate and the Merciful

الحمد لله ربّ العالمين و الحمد لله الذی لا مُضادّ له في مُلكه و لا مُنازِعَ لَهُ في أمره. الحمدالله الذی لا شريك لَهُ في خلقه ولا شبيه لَهُ في عَظَمَتِه (جزء من دعاء الإفتتاح) وصلّی الله علی سيدّنا ونبيّنا محمّد صلّی الله عليه وعلی آله الطاهرين واصحابه المنتجبين.

عبادالله ! أُوصيكم و نفسي بتقوی الله و اتّباع امره و نهیه.

 

One important affair that is presented about the sharia of Islam is that when Muslims know their obligations and act them, they have done their responsibilities. In other words, there are rights versus obligations. Such matters can complete our discussion. It is appropriate that the relationship between rights and obligations can be somehow analyzed.

It seems that if we pay attention to the two words '' rights'' and '' obligations'', it can be concluded that there is a relationship between them even in their meanings. In other words, if we want to know the meaning of the word '' obligations'', we should know the meaning of the word '' rights'' and if we want to know the meaning of the word '' rights'', we should know the meaning of the word '' obligations''. Hence, some have considered the relationship and correspondence between '' rights'' and '' obligations'' the same as the relationship between a father and his child. As a child is meaningless without his father, rights without obligations are meaningless as well.[1] Some scientists have interpreted rights and obligations as two faces of a coin.[2] Some experts and scientists of Islam believe about the relationship between rights and obligations that obligations do not mean to oblige others to do actions or give them up and there is a mutual relationship between obligations and rights. In other words, rights involve obligations and obligations involve rights. The only difference is that the choice is hidden in the meaning of rights and people that include rights can choose whereas such a thing is not true about obligations. However, human beings are able to give them up practically[3]. It has also been said that '' obligations are accompanied by rights that have been considered for others and rights include obligations for others. Hence, we can say that rights and obligations are two interrelated meanings; in other words, they are two faces of a coin. When we say that someone has the right to use something, it means that others are obliged to respect his or her rights''[4].

What is vital to pay attention to is that from the point of view of the sharia of Islam, there is a tight relationship between rights and obligations of human beings in a way that we cannot separate. This topic is one of important matters that should be paid more attention to because it can be seen nowadays that some people crush responsibilities and obligations under their feet on the account of freedom right in a false meaning whereas if there is a right, there should definitely be an obligation in line with the right. For example, if freedom right is well known for human beings, this right is defined according to the value of the people and environment around him. Hence, human beings should preserve their values and virtues as the most honorable creature and respect the rights of others in life. Likewise, it is not appropriate that because a human being has freedom right, he or she can gain his or her desires and temptations by any means and ways. Therefore, there are rules with specific conditions for all rights and obligations so that human beings can achieve bliss and the desired perfection with using their rights and responsibilities left to them.

 

Of course, this point should be paid attention to that when there is a relationship between rights and obligations in their real meanings, people should try to behave fairly and wisely and in fact, they want that all human beings achieve their real rights. However, the societies that exploit the individuals of the society by force consider right for themselves and violate the rights of other people easily. From the point of view of Amir Al-Momenin (peace be upon him), the relationship between rights and obligations is in the way that one of them cannot exist without the other one. Hence, he stated

 

فَقَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ حَقّاً بِوِلَايَةِ أَمْرِكُمْ وَ لَكُمْ عَلَيَّ مِنَ الْحَقِّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي لِي عَلَيْكُمْ- [وَ الْحَقُ‏] فَالْحَقُّ أَوْسَعُ الْأَشْيَاءِ فِي‏  التَّوَاصُفِ وَ أَضْيَقُهَا فِي التَّنَاصُفِ لَا يَجْرِي لِأَحَدٍ إِلَّا جَرَى عَلَيْهِ وَ لَا يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا جَرَى لَهُ وَ لَوْ كَانَ لِأَحَدٍ أَنْ يَجْرِيَ لَهُ وَ لَا يَجْرِيَ عَلَيْهِ لَكَانَ ذَلِكَ خَالِصاً لِلَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ دُونَ خَلْقِهِ لِقُدْرَتِهِ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَ لِعَدْلِهِ فِي كُلِّ مَا جَرَتْ عَلَيْهِ صُرُوفُ قَضَائِه‏..[5]

 

'' After I admire God, I should express that the good God has determined rights for me since I am the guardian of your government and he has determined rights for you as well. Hence, rights are more extended than we can describe. However, when they are described, they are unique. If a right is implemented in the favor of someone, it will be implemented against his or her favor one day because if it is implemented against his or her favor, one day it will be in his or her favor. If it is supposed that a right is implemented in the favor of someone not against his or her favor, it is specialized only for God not other creatures because God is powerful and he has his justice over his creatures that obey his orders.

 

Whenever common people and leaders respect the rights of each other and people implement the rights of their leader and vice versa, rights will be highly valuable in that society and the rules of the religion will be implemented. Moreover, fairness will be implemented in the society, the tradition of the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) will be established and the life of people will be improved. According to the mentioned matters, it can be concluded that relationship between right and obligation can be seen in the life of common people and this right is not only true about people and their leader. Hence, Hazrat Amir Al-Momenin(peace be upon him) also stated      

                                   

ثُمَّ جَعَلَ سُبْحَانَهُ مِنْ حُقُوقِهِ حُقُوقاً افْتَرَضَهَا لِبَعْضِ النَّاسِ عَلَى بَعْضٍ هفَجَعَلَهَا تَتَكَافَأُ فِي وُجُوهِهَا وَ يُوجِبُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً وَ لَا يُسْتَوْجَبُ بَعْضُهَا إِلَّا بِبَعْضٍ

 

''The Good God has considered some rights vajeb for some people and other rights for other people. Rights are vajeb provided that the same people implement the same rights''. [6]

 

The exalted God has established rights for people in the society against each other. A right depends on another right and a right is not vajeb without the other one. 


 

                          



Muhammad Ali Movahed, the book '' the atmosphere of truth and fairness'' p 35 1.

2. Muhammad Jafar Langarudi, the book  '' a comprehensive explanation of rights'' p 1403

3. Ayatollah Allame avadi Amoli, the book '' the philosophy and the rights of human'' p 75-76

4. The book '' the philosophy of rights '' p 24

5. Nahj Al-Balaghe , sermon 216

6. Nahj Al-Balaghe/ khotbe 216


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